UN Office on Drugs, Crime Control and Prevention (UNODCCP) is the forerunner of UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) which was established in October 2002. UNODC is entrusted with the responsibility for implementing UN International Drug Control programme. The Governing body of the UN Drug Control programme is the 53 member UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND), and it relies on voluntary contributions mainly from member states, for 90 per cent of its budget. UNODC is headed by an Executive Director General of UNOV. UNODC and UNOV are closely associated and a few common services like Information technology are provided by UNOV through UNODC to other Organizations located at Vienna International Centre (VIC).
UNODC also functions as a Secretariat to CND and CCPCJ and supports Secretariat of INCB.
Commission On Narcotics Drugs (CND)
The Commission on Narcotic Drugs is a functional commission of ECOSOC, which has a governing body of 53 member states who are elected for four-year term during the organizational session of ECOSOC held in New York every year in May. India is a member of the Commission for last several terms.
The CND is the governing body for the UN international Drug Control programme. It gives the policy directions and approves programme and budget of UNODC. The CND adopts Resolutions and takes decisions in its regular sessions and also recommends decisions and resolutions for adoption by ECOSOC and UN General Assembly which eventually direct the work of UNODC.
The CND meets annually in a regular session for duration ranging from five to eight days. A reconvened session is held in every alternate year for two to three days to discuss the biennial budget of UN Drug programme. The regular sessions as well as the reconvened sessions are generally held in Vienna in first quarter and last quarter respectively .
The CND elects its bureau consisting of a Chairman, 3 Vice Chairmen, and a rapporteur, on the last day of the annual session. The bureau is responsible for the inter-sessional work of the Commission till the subsequent session and also for the decisions related to the organisational arrangements.
Commission On Crime Prevention And Criminal Justice (CCPCJ)
The UN Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (CCPCJ) is a functional commission of ECOSOC. It formulates international policies and recommends activities in the field of crime control. It was established pursuant to a ministerial meeting held in Versailles in 1991, and was preceded by a more technically focussed Committee on Crime Prevention and Control, formed in 1971 to replace an earlier expert advisory committee
The Commission offers States a forum for exchanging information and to agree on ways and means to fight crime on a global level. It also provides substantive direction for the periodic UN Congresses, held every five years, on the Prevention of Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice.
There are 40 members of the Commission who are elected for a three years term. The retiring members are eligible for re-election and are elected during the organisational segment of the ECOSOC in May every year. India is presently member of the CCPCJ .
Priority areas mandated by the Council when it established the Commission in 1992 are:
• international action to combat national and transnational crime, including organized crime, economic crime and money laundering;
• promoting the role of criminal law in protecting the environment;
• crime prevention in urban areas, including juvenile crime and violence; and
• improving the efficiency and fairness of criminal justice administration systems.
The Commission meets in Vienna, Austria annually in regular session for a period of 8 days except in the year when UN Congress is held.
The Commission formulates draft resolutions for adoption/action by the UNGA/Economic and Social Council. These resolutions eventually direct the work of the Crime programme of the UNODC.
International Narcotics Control Board (INCB)
This is a quasi-judicial body of the UN which is mandated to oversee the implementation of the Treaties related to UN conventions on NDPS, specifically, UN Convention against NDPS, 1988. The INCB is a 13 –member board, members of which are elected in their individual capacity and cannot hold any office of profit with any Government.
The mandate of the INCB also includes the responsibility to ensure adequate supply of Narcotics drugs to the world community for meeting its medical and scientific needs. This is done through compiling estimates of requirements of member states for medical and scientific needs and matching supplies to meet these requirements from traditional producers. In this context, work of INCB is important to India as it is the only traditional producer of the licit opium in the world. There are some other countries which produce opium derivatives through poppy straw.